Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Acid Rain Essays - Inorganic Solvents, Acid Rain, Free Essays

Corrosive Rain Essays - Inorganic Solvents, Acid Rain, Free Essays Corrosive Rain Presentation: What Causes Acid Rain? One of the fundamental driver of corrosive downpour is sulfur dioxide. Common sources, which discharge this gas, are Volcanoes, ocean splash, spoiling vegetation and microscopic fish. Nonetheless, the consuming of petroleum derivatives, for example, Coal and oil, are to a great extent to be accused for roughly 50% of the discharges of this gas on the planet. At the point when sulfur dioxide arrives at the air, it oxidizes to initially shape a sulfate particle. It at that point Gets sulfuric corrosive as it gets together with hydrogen iotas noticeable all around and falls down to earth. Oxidation happens the most in mists and particularly in vigorously contaminated air where different mixes for example, smelling salts and ozone help to catalyze the response, changing more sulfur dioxide to sulfuric corrosive. Be that as it may, not the entirety of the sulfur dioxide is changed to sulfuric corrosive. Indeed, a generous sum can skim up into the climate, move over to another zone and come back to earth unconverted. In the accompanying pages I will show the impacts of corrosive downpour on: Impact on Trees and Soils Impact on Lakes and Aquatic Systems Impact on Materials Impact on Atmosphere Impact on Architecture Impact on Humans Impact on Trees and Soils One of the most genuine effects of corrosive precipitation is on backwoods and soils. Incredible harm is finished at the point when sulfuric corrosive falls onto the earth as downpour. Supplements present in the dirts are washed away. Aluminum additionally present in the dirt is liberated and the foundations of trees can ingest this harmful component. In this way, the trees are famished to death as they are denied of their indispensable supplements, for example, calcium also, magnesium. Not the entirety of the sulfur dioxide is changed over to sulfuric corrosive. Actually, a considerable sum can drift into the air, move over to another territory and come back to the dirts unconverted. As this gas returns back to earth, it stops up the stomata in the leaves, in this manner blocking photosynthesis. Exploration has been made where red tidy seedlings were splashed with various blends of sulfuric and nitric corrosive of pH extending from 2.5 to 4.5. The needles of these seedlings were seen to create earthy colored injuries. In the long run, the needles tumble off. It was additionally discovered that new needles developed all the more gradually at higher groupings of corrosive utilized. Since the rate at which the needles were falling was more prominent than the rate at which they were recharged, photosynthesis was incredibly influenced, The genuine manner by which these needles were executed is as yet not yet known. Be that as it may, examines have indicated that calcium and magnesium supplements are washed away from their coupling destinations at the point when sulfuric corrosive enters the framework. They are supplanted by futile hydrogen molecules and this restrains photosynthesis. Impact on Lakes and Aquatic Systems One of the immediate impacts of corrosive downpour is on lakes and its amphibian biological systems. There are a few courses through which acidic synthetic substances can enter the lakes. Some synthetic substances exist as dry particles noticeable all around while others enter the lakes as wet particles, for example, downpour, day off, hail, dew or haze. Likewise, lakes can nearly be thought of as the sinks of the earth, where downpour that falls ashore is depleted through the sewage frameworks inevitably advance into the lakes. Corrosive downpour that falls onto the earth washes off the supplements out of the dirt and conveys poisonous metals that have been discharged from the dirt into the lakes. Another hurtful manner by which acids can enter the lakes is spring corrosive stun. At the point when snow dissolves in spring quickly because of an unexpected temperature change, the acids and synthetics in the snow are discharged into the dirts. The dissolved snow at that point runs off to streams and streams, and bit by bit advance into the lakes. The presentation of these acids and synthetic concoctions into the lakes causes an abrupt intense change in the pH of the lakes - thus the term spring corrosive stun. The oceanic biological system has no an ideal opportunity to conform to the unexpected change. What's more, springtime is a particularly defenseless an ideal opportunity for some oceanic species since this is the ideal opportunity for proliferation for creatures of land and water, fish and bugs. A significant number of these species lay their eggs in the water to bring forth. The abrupt pH change is perilous in light of the fact that the acids can cause genuine disfigurements in their young or even obliterate the entire species since the youthful of a large number of such species spend a noteworthy piece of their life cycle in

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Relationships and Human Behavior Perspectives Essay

Evaluating human practices from alternate points of view, including the five principle viewpoints of natural, learning, social and social, psychological, and psychodynamic impacts, can once in a while shed light on why people act the manner in which they do. Utilizing these viewpoints to survey how connections start, create, and are kept up can give a more profound comprehension and setting of this wonder. Confining adoration associations with these alternate points of view additionally assists with indicating how the viewpoints themselves vary or are comparable according to how they think about connections as being framed and kept up. The natural viewpoint battles that inborn causes drive human conduct. In particular, this point of view expresses that the activities of the sensory system and hereditary heredity lead to various sorts of conduct (McLeod, 2007). From this point of view, hormonal responses and sentiments of support in the mind that are related with a specific individual lead individuals to begin connections (McLeod, 2007). Moreover, the relationship is kept up on the grounds that people want to recreate and give their own hereditary material to their posterity, and so as to drive this inclination, the cerebrum keeps on activating sentiments of joy and hormonal discharges to fortify the relationship between a given individual and positive sentiments (McLeod, 2007). This point of view is to some degree novel from different ones by they way it sees connections, since it guarantees that exceptional intellectual procedures are not even vital for a relationship to last; rather, just biochemical procedures a re required. The following kind of point of view, the learning viewpoint, guarantees that learning through affiliation prompts explicit practices, and that people will for the most part figure out how to authorize practices that they see are remunerated (Mikkelson and Pauley, 2013). From this point of view, people structure connections since they see different connections, for example, those of their folks, remotely compensated, and come to relate the idea of â€Å"love† with remuneration. The prizes that one gets from a relationship, for example, consideration, empathy, or even monetary security, are related with â€Å"love† over the long run, which fortifies the relationship and makes individuals more probable toâ maintain a relationship after they have been associated with it for quite a while (Mikkelson and Pauley, 2013). Like the organic point of view, the learning viewpoint esteems relationship conduct as something past humans’ cognizant control and doesn't really require cognizant idea, in spite of the fact that the learning viewpoint doesn't profess to know the inside procedures that drive it, and it requires that people have at any rate the capacity to learn with the end goal for them to be associated with connections (Mikkelson and Pauley, 2013). Social and social points of view guarantee that people are instilled with what comprises â€Å"right† conduct through socialization. Since individuals experience childhood, by and large, in families with wedded guardians, or if nothing else where the guardians date others, youngsters learn at an early stage that connections are satisfactory, yet really alluring (McLeod, 2007). This thought is additionally fortified through messages given to the kid through the media, their companions and other relatives, and a great many people they interact with, every one of whom regard â€Å"love† to be probably the most significant standard an individual can accomplish. People accordingly search out connections in their high schooler years since they have been informed that it is a constructive goal to endeavor toward, and they are additionally strengthened in their perspectives by their accomplice and other people who know them subsequent to dating or getting hitched, which drives the individual to proceed with their relationship (McLeod, 2007). This point of view is not normal for the learning and organic viewpoints in that it doesn't depend on reflexes or natural drives, however rather requires complex idea, and, additionally, socialization; an individual living outside of society would almost certainly want to be seeing someone, to this point of view. The subjective point of view guarantees that human idea is the thing that drives all conduct. In this sense, at that point, people enter connections since they consider connections to be something that they want, and which will give them some kind of happiness or compensation for searching out (Mikkelson and Pauley, 2013). On the off chance that they find that they do get some sort of advantage from dating an individual, they will settle on the choice to build up the relationship further, becoming familiar with the individual and maybe in any event, getting hitched, on the off chance that they accept that they are adequately perfect with the other individual for theâ relationship to last and keep on being fulfilling (Mikkelson and Pauley, 2013). This point of view, similar to the social and social viewpoint, is exceptionally dependent on human idea as a driver of connections, yet the psychological point of view considers connections an individual decision as opposed to a consequence of cultural weight. Finally, the psychodynamic point of view fights that conduct is because of communications between the cognizant and the inner mind. A relationship may start on the grounds that an individual from the other gender may help a person to remember the caring relationship they had with their folks, however so as to sublimate the wrong want for one’s guardians, the individual searches out a relationship with an individual outside of their family. The relationship is kept up in light of the fact that it gives the individual sense of self satisfaction (McLeod, 2007). Like the psychological and social viewpoints, the psychodynamic point of view depicts connections as far as human idea and subjective movement, yet dissimilar to those different points of view, the psychodynamic standpoint accepts that people are will undoubtedly go into connections, since it attributes the conduct to intrinsic drives. In this sense, the psychodynamic point of view is to some degree like the natural viewpoint. These alternate points of view, at that point, can give various kinds of understanding into human connections. References McLeod, S. (2007). Brain science Perspectives. Recovered from, A. C., and Pauley, P. M. (2013). Amplifying Relationship Possibilities: Relational Maximization in Romantic Relationships. Diary Of Social Psychology, 153(4), 467-485. doi:10.1080/00224545.2013.767776

Sunday, August 16, 2020

How Shareable Content is Going to Revolutionize Your Business

How Shareable Content is Going to Revolutionize Your Business In 1996, Microsoft founder Bill Gates wrote an essay entitled Content is King. In it, he posits that Content is where I expect much of the real money will be made on the Internet, just as it was in broadcasting.And Gates wasnt wrong. According to some of the most recent statistics available in the field of content marketing and creation:90% of all organizations use content in their marketing efforts82% of consumers feel more positive about a company after reading custom content70% of consumers feel closer to a company as a result of content marketing60% of consumers enjoy reading relevant content from brandsOnline marketing, including social media marketing, can revolutionize the way you spread the word about your business. Photo by Austin Distel on Unsplash.However, there is more to creating great content than simply putting words on a page and publishing them online. In his exploration of the future of online content, Gates noted that, If people are to be expected to put up with tu rning on a computer to read a screen, they must be rewarded with deep and extremely up-to-date information that they can explore at will. They need to have audio, and possibly video. They need an opportunity for personal involvement that goes far beyond that offered through the letters-to-the-editor pages of print magazines.In his essay, Gates foretold the struggle of the print industry in that consumers have gravitated toward online consumption of news, books, and magazines. Beyond the added benefit of video and audio, online content is readily available wherever and whenever a consumer has the time and desire to access it. There is a reward for accessing content online and for the most part, its instant gratification.However, its this concept that is the secret to creating shareable content that will revolutionize your business. Your content needs to be rewarding for your audience to read, and it has to offer something they cant get from print advertising alone. It needs to encour age active involvement and engagement with a companys core philosophy and business goals and it needs to offer the reader something in exchangeâ€"important information to ease the stress of their daily lives, insider tips and how-to advice, or a story/idea that encourages or inspires them. They will, in turn, want to share this contentâ€"hoping it will help someone else as much as it has helped themâ€"and thats how a businesss reputation grows. This inspiring, educational, rewarding content is the kind of content that will prove to be king in your marketing efforts.The cost of content marketingIf your marketing budget is already stretched thin, it might be difficult to imagine the additional cost of paying content creators to help build your online audience. However, your marketing strategy could, in fact, need a complete overhaul because focusing more on shareable online content is going to help you in two ways. First, it will help you save money, since the latest statistics show t hat content marketing costs an average of 62% less than traditional marketing. In fact, per dollar spent, content marketing generates approximately 3 times as many leads as traditional marketing. Second, its going to increase your leads, since statistics show that, on average, companies with blogs produce a 67% increase in leads per month.Buyer personaIf youre convinced its time to revolutionize the way you market your business, the first step you need to take to make the most out of content marketing is to create a buyer persona. A buyer persona is a fictional representation of your average customer, including demographics, education level, demands and purchasing habits. It provides an overview of the type of customer your content should engage and will help your content writers understand the audience they should be reaching, along with what appeals to that audience.Magazines and other publications do this same type of study to determine who their audience is, their media consumpt ion habits, and the type of stories that would be most appealing to their readership. Successful publications have fine-tuned exactly who reads their content and previously published content that has received the most positive response.In many cases, businesses will have several buyer personas to consider, meaning that there are multiple customer or client types to focus on for content marketing strategy. There might also be an negative persona, meaning a customer type you dont want to attract.Creating buyer personas can strengthen your online marketing strategy and help you pinpoint your audience. Photo by Campaign Creators on Unsplash.While they might sound complicated, buyer personas are easy to create, although it can be time-consuming to go through the process. In most cases, interviews are required (with former and current customers) and youll need to spend some time organizing and extrapolating the data from interviews when they have been completed. If you are feeling overwhe lmed with the idea, this article offers a detailed explanation of what a buyer persona is, how to create one, and a free template you can download and use in the process of doing so.Blogging for businessSo, now that weve established the power of content marketing and how to narrow it to the right audience, lets look at what goes into creating content that is shareable. As a general rule, you want to make sure the content your business publishes meets the following criteria:It should be high-quality, relevant and interestingIt should hold your readers attentionIt should improve customer loyalty to your business or brandThe good news is: If you can manage to meet the first two criteria, the last one will be a given. High-quality content that is interesting is the type of content your audience will want to share, whether through email or on social media. By doing so, your business name is connected to a positive message that makes someones day better, whether through helpful tips or re minders to slow down and enjoy the present moment. This kind of messaging strategy will automatically make your audience feel more personally connected to your business or brand.Some engaging content ideas include an article that:Spotlights an employee and his/her hobbiesTells the story of your companyOffers advice related to your companys product or service (for example, if you run a home-cleaning business, you might provide content on tips for keeping your home tidy during hectic times or best cleaning products on the market.)Breaks down complicated information or data from studies conducted that are related to your business or serviceDetails your companys involvement with a local charity or nonprofitOffers a fun contest, such as customer-submitted photos, essays, recipes, etc.Social mediaWhen it comes to increasing brand awareness and attracting more customers, you really cant beat the popularity and cost-effectiveness of social media marketing. The Pew Research Center found that nearly seven-in-ten Americans now use social media. Although social media is especially popular among younger adults (86% of 18- to 29-year-olds are social media users), adults ages 30-49 (80%) and 50-64 (64%) use social media, as well.Your content strategy on social media should be to share the many facets of your business with your potential, present, and future clients. It should present a well-rounded glimpse of what your business offers and the overall philosophy or worldview you embrace in your company culture. You can do this through a variety of different posts, including:Links to your recently (or previously) published blog articlesAnnouncements of special events or open houses for your businessSales, doorbusters, special offers or coupons your business is offeringContests with prizes (this is a great way to encourage your followers to share your post, especially if you make it a requirement for contest entry)Although social media content is part of your businesss overall content marketing strategy, its a separate entity and should be treated as such if you want to be successful at it. Doing it right requires creating an editorial/publication schedule ahead of time and keeping it on track. It also requires consistent monitoring to ensure your brand reputation isnt compromised by spam, foul language, or other potential issues.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Observational Taxonomy for Children - 1342 Words

Observational taxonomy as it relates to the nature of early social interaction, is a classification system that uses a code of different behaviors that are seen when observing children during play and non-play and is further divided into cognitive and social categories. Amongst the many theorists, Mildred Parten and Jean Piaget are significant to the field of early observational studies comprising of children in the free play atmosphere. Parten asserted that social participation amongst preschool aged children amplified as the child’s age increased (Parten 1932). To support her logic she categorized play into six distinct categories of social participation which include unoccupied behavior, solitary play, onlooker behavior, parallel play,†¦show more content†¦This vision is brought to life as their children are guided to question, hypothesize, solve problems, and express themselves creatively (Department of Human Development). The fascinating teachers at the CYC respect and apprehend the individuality of each child they come across. The main objective of this paper is to fully compare the social expansion of two arbitrary children while critically analyzing their participation in solitary and group activities, and their technique of interacting with the teacher and other adults in the classroom setting. Robert and Ariel both 3  ½- 4 years were observed at the Center for Young Children, UMCP for 15minutes each with 15 other students and 3 adults; one head teacher and 2 assistant. Robert playing by himself grabbed a piece of construction paper and is drawing a picture. He hands it to the teacher to hold so that he can cut through it. He is laughing while cutting through the paper and interacting with the teacher the entire time. Robert is playing with the glue bottle; he keeps stacking and throwing it down. Teacher tells him it is not the right thing to do. Robert continues to laugh and knock down the glue bottle. He finds this amusing as he giggles and laughs while the teacher is talking to him. The teacher is explaining to him that if other kids see him doingShow MoreRelatedBloom s Taxonomy Assessment Observation1134 Words   |  5 Pages Bloom’s Taxonomy Assessment Observation Observation Setting I observed a teacher at the Salem Preschool on Tuesday, October 24, 2017. The time was around 10:05, which is Circle Time. Observational Assessment Questions 1. Did you notice someone is absent today? Who is it? This is an example of an analyzing question because the students were being asked to study their surroundings to figure out who did not come to class that morning. 2. What’s the first month of theRead MoreThe Perspectives Of Albert Banduras Social Learning Theory1237 Words   |  5 Pagesto its inclusion of motivation, memory and attention. This style of learning was depicted clearly through the 1961 Bobo doll experiment, here Bandura has models show violence to a portion of the 72 children selected, this aggression was replicated by the children, confirming the process of observational learning (Nolan, 2009). Ultimately this can be translated onto the ambulance service by poor clinical practice, the student may replicate this, accepted by the weaker clinician and when challengedRead MoreBehavioral Learning Child Development Observation1597 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Introduction Theories of child development can be tied to particular philosophical groundings of the major schools of psychology. This paper will provide the basis for the application of behavioral learning theory to an observation of three children in a natural context. A discussion of the rationale for choosing behavioral learning theory over cognitive, contextual, psychodynamic, or social-cognitive learning precedes the explication of behavioral learning theory. As summary of notes and conclusionsRead MoreThe Field of Social Psychology Used to Develop a Personal Theory2101 Words   |  8 Pagesimproves the overall psychological affect of the individual within the context of his or her social interactions. In this regard, this project first examines several core theories within the field of social psychology. These core theories are: observational learning theory, self-perception theory, drive theory and attribution theory. Subsequently, these theories are discussed in the context of a personal theory of social psychology and applied to a real-world scenario. The real-world scenario thatRead MoreProfessional Development : A Teacher s Recognition Of Individual Learning Styles1960 Words   |  8 PagesDevelopment Theory, and Humanistic Theory. Behaviourist Learning Theory suggests that behaviour is influenced by environmental factors (Gross and Kinninson, 2012). This can be further categorised into classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. Pavlov (1927), Watson (1930), Skinner (1938), and Bandura (1971), predominantly researched into these theories. They each offered significant evaluation from their research. Ivan Pavlov and John Watson both researched and developed theRead MoreEssay on Basic Concepts in Attachment Theory2804 Words   |  12 Pagessecurity. This system is first evident early in life as children interact with their primary caregiver. When they are physically or psychologically threatened, children turn to their caregiver for comfort, and ideally their caregiver responds with immediate, positive, and consistent support. In reality, of course, caregivers do not always respond in ways that children expect. On the basis of their accumulated experiences with caregivers, children develop mental representations, or internal working modelsRead MoreChild Observation Report Essay example1832 Words   |  8 Pagesencourage positive attitudes toward other children, and more importantly, learn to interact with people around them in the contemporary world. However, art for young students often takes many diversified approaches and emphasizing questionable practices. Observation is a p art of meaningful and authentic early childhood art education. Observation enriches children’s experiences in their environment, gives them motivation to study, interact with other children and follow the practices of their adultRead MoreFreud s Theory Of Psychosexual Stages Of Development And Costa And Mccrae s Five Factor Model2237 Words   |  9 Pagesand any similarities found. The key strength of Costa and McCrae’s model was providing a detailed and structured analysis of personality that is scientifically based however was limited in explaining the origin of Judy’s personality. Freud’s observational method using the Rorschach has little scientific evidence however his theory did provide explanations for how Jane’s personality developed. While there were many differences some similarities were also found with the most interesting that finalRead MoreGorilla Gorillas And Western Lowland Gorilla Essay1991 Words   |  8 PagesGorilla, withi n the Suborder Haplorhini (Table 1). G. gorilla gorilla is found in Central to Western Africa in lowlands, swamps, and tropical and subtropical forests (San Diego Zoo Global 2006; World Wildlife Fund n.d.a.). Table 1. G. gorilla gorilla Taxonomy Suborder Haplorhini Infraorder Simiiformes Superfamily Hominoidea Family Hominidae Genus Gorilla Species G. gorilla Subspecies G. gorilla gorilla Source: Primate Info Net (Cawthon Lang 2005) Western lowland gorillas are sexually dimorphic with theRead MorePsy 244 Essay10464 Words   |  42 Pagesconcerned for the health and well-being of infants and children. Were they interested to the same degree in the psychology of infants and children? For example, did they understand that children are psychologically different from adults? If yes, how did they show this? If no, how did they show this? Explain your answer. ïÆ'  They showed kids in pictures dressed like adults; faces and bodies were like adults. E.g. Phillip Aries â€Å"small children at play† 3. One of the most famous speeches in Shakespeare’s

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Standardized Testing Is Not Be Completely Honest I Do Not...

Standardize Testing Being completely honest I do not know much about standardized test. I remember having to take them as a student in elementary and junior high. I knew that I would not be receiving a letter grade on these test. I remember never stressing about taking the test. To be honest if I did not understand the question I was the kid that just made a design on the answer sheet. I absolutely was not aware of the reasoning or purpose of test. As a parent, I see my kids stress out about taking the standardize test. As a parent this concerns me. I don t know about you, I don t want my kiddo stressing out about a standardize test. I need to know about these test. How did they come about, what is the purpose, does standardize test benefit students, teachers or schools and are they truly beneficial to my child s education. Standardize test are a result from that No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The NCLB became a law in 2002 by President George W. Bush. The reason for NCLB was a growing concern that the American education system was no longer internationally competitive ­Ã‚ ­ - significantly increased the federal role in holding schools responsible for the academic progress of all students. (Klein, 2015). NCLB purpose is to ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging State academic achievement standards and state academic assessments. This purpose can beShow MoreRelatedStandardized Testing Is Not Be Completely Honest, I Do Not Know About Standardized Test1363 Words   |  6 PagesStandardize Testing Being completely honest, I do not know much about standardized test. I remember having to take them as a student in elementary and junior high. I knew that I would not be receiving a letter grade on these tests. I remember never stressing about taking the test. 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Traditional exams and tests are mostly based on materials taught in the course to meet predetermined objectives. They cannot assess whether or not learners can apply it. To truly understand some new ideas, students need to apply it. My experience as an English teacher provides some ideas to frame my discussion of assessment. Although many teachers think that the scores of the exams and the tests are objective and cannot be wrong, I think that these scores are uncertain they needRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )2303 Words   |  10 Pagesa relatively vague illness, and this sort of variance is frightening. Without any stability in these areas, the impression of ADHD becomes more and more unclear. As someone who has been diagnosed with ADHD, yet does not feel affected by the illness; I believe clarifying the mystery that is ADHD is enormously important and both the public perception and academic research play a role in this. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Night Stalker Free Essays

Ricardo â€Å"Richard† Munoz Ramirez born February 28, 1960 is a convicted serial killer and is awaiting execution on California’s death row. Before his capture, Ramirez was dubbed the â€Å"Night Stalker† by the mass media. Munoz’s crimes stem from murder to rape and home invasion, his first victim was on April 10, 1984, 9-year-old Mei Leung was found dead in a hotel basement where Ramirez was living at the time. We will write a custom essay sample on Night Stalker or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ramirez’s DNA was matched to DNA obtained at the 1984 crime scene in 2009. On June 28, 1984, 79-year-old Jennie Vincow was found dead in her apartment. She had been stabbed repeatedly, and her throat was slashed so severely she was almost decapitated. On February 21, 1985, Sisters Christina and Mary Caldwell, aged 58 and 71, were found dead in their home. They each were stabbed dozens of times. On March 17, 1985, Ramirez attacked 22-year-old Angela Barrios outside her home. He shot her before entering her house. Inside was Dayle Okazaki, age 34, who Ramirez immediately shot and killed. Within an hour of killing Okazaki, Ramirez again attacked 30-year-old Tsai-Lian Yu, he pulled her out of her car onto the road. He shot her several times and fled. The two attacks occurring on the same day sparked media attention, and caused panic and fear among the public. On March 27, Ramirez shot Vincent Zazzara, age 64, and his wife Maxine, age 44. Mrs. Zazzara’s body was mutilated with several stab wounds. Bullets found at the scene were matched to those found at previous attacks, and the police realized a serial killer was on the loose. Two months after killing the Zazarra couple, Ramirez attacked a Chinese couple: Harold Wu, age 66, who was shot in the head, and his wife, Jean Wu, age 63, who was punched, bound, and then violently raped. On May 29, 1985, Ramirez attacked Malvial Keller, 83, and her disabled sister, Blanche Wolfe, 80, beating each with a hammer. Ramirez attempted to rape Keller, but failed. The next day, Ruth Wilson, 41, was bound, raped, and sodomized by Ramirez, while her 12-year-old son was locked in a closet. Ramirez slashed Wilson once, and then bound her and her son together, and left. On June 2, 1985 Edward Wildgans, 29, was shot and killed by Ramirez. His girlfriend was raped several times by Ramirez but survived. On July 5, sixteen-year-old Whitney Bennett survived after being beaten with a tire iron by Ramirez. On July 7, Linda Fortuna, 63, was attacked and Ramirez tried to rape her, but failed. On July 20, he again struck twice he shot and killed a 32-year-old man, Chitat Assawahem, and his wife Sakima, 29, was beaten and forced to perform oral intercourse. Later in the same day a Glendale couple, Maxson Kneiding, 66, and his wife Lela, also 66, were shot and killed. On August 6, Ramirez shot both Christopher Petersen, 38, and his wife, Virginia, 27, in the head. Amazingly, they both survived. On August 8, Ramirez attacked a couple, fatally shooting Ahmed Zia, 35, before raping Zia’s wife, Suu Kyi, 28. Ramirez then left Los Angeles area, and on August 17, he shot to death a 66-year-old man in San Francisco, also shooting and beating his wife. The wife survived her wounds and was able to identify her attacker from police sketches as the attacker from other similar previous attacks. August 24, 1985, Ramirez traveled broke apartment of Bill Carns, 29, and his fiancee, Inez Erickson, 27. Ramirez shot Carns in the head and raped Erickson. Munoz had stolen the couple’s car and was found on August 28, and police were able to obtain one fingerprint that was on the mirror of the vehicle. The prints belonged to Richard Munoz Ramirez, who was described as a 25-year-old drifter from Texas with a long rap sheet that included many arrests for traffic and illegal drug violations. Two days later, his mugshots were broadcast on national television and printed on the cover of every major newspaper in California. The next day Ramirez was identified, chased, surrounded, and severely beaten by an angry mob in East Los Angeles as he was trying to steal a car. Police had to break up the mob to prevent them from killing Ramirez. On September 20, 1989, he was found guilty of 13 counts of murder, 5 attempted murders, 11 sexual assaults and 14 burglaries. During the penalty phase of the trial on November 7, 1989, he was sentenced to die in California’s gas chamber. The trial of Richard Ramirez was one of the most difficult and longest criminal trials in American history, taking over four years to finalize. Almost 1,600 prospective jurors were interviewed. More than one hundred witnesses testified, and while a number of witnesses had a difficult time recalling certain facts four years after the crimes, others were quite certain of the identity of Richard Ramirez. References The Night Stalker by Philip Carlo pg. 191 ch. 20 â€Å"I’M YOUR NIGHT PROWLER: Interview with Richard Ramirez† (Interview). FEAST OF HATE AND FEAR. Issue 6: FEAST OF HATE AND FEAR. 1996. http://listography. com/showder/serial_killers. /the_victims_of_richard_ram%C3% How to cite Night Stalker, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Customer Retention in Hospitality Industry Free Sample

Question: Discuss about theCustomer Retention in Hospitality Industryfor Hilton Hotel. Answer: Introduction This section of the research study involves review of the secondary sources of information on the topic of research from the journals on the research issue, blogs, earlier researches, online texts, industry databases and published articles to aid the development of a theoretical perspective about the variables of the study. In the service sector of hospitality, customer as the end user of the service is the fulcrum of all business strategies and decisions, hence its retention is of paramount importance to augur organisational success and growth in the market competition. Therefore through the review of the established theories and perspectives on the issue of customer retention, a critical analysis of the various facets of customer retention, its significance and implications in the service sector of hospitality would form part of the study in this section. The case study organisation of Hilton Hotel has been confronting hurdles lately in its customer relationship management leading to a loss of customers, thus making it pertinent to conduct the present research so that a comprehensive awareness can be developed about the issue of customer retention, and recommendations can be formulated on the basis of findings to help the brand retain its global reputation among its clientele. Hilton Hotel has a strong brand presence in over 90 countries with a staggering number of 4000 properties. The brand gained immense global popularity due to its utilisation as the integrative force behind many films and television serials. The brand boasts of over 150,000 employees and is known for its endowment of its workforce relationship along with a sound relationship with its customers. Customer Retention in Hospitality Sector Customer retention according to Osman, Hemmington and Bowie, (2009) is the prime cause for the sustainability of the hospitality organisations as the prime objective of the hospitality sector centres around fructification of the goals desired by the customers. On the face of stiff emerging global competitiveness, the marketing activities tend to reveal a downwards slide making it almost imperative for the hoteliers to adopt a stable and modern marketing strategy that involves incorporation of programs that aims at the development of customer loyalty towards the respective brand. Generation of customer loyalty as stated by Yoo, Lee and Bai, (2011), in the current hospitality industry scenario makes customer acquisition and retention the prime focus for long run sustainability in the market competition. Not only attracting the new set of customers is mandatory for the maintenance of a steady flow of revenue and profits from the business but maintaining the old customers are equally vit al for the growth of the enterprise. The hotel industry as stated by Grissemann, Plank and Brunner-Sperdin, (2013), survives purely on the basis of customer retention since it concerns repeated purchase of services and products of the similar nature over a specific period of time. Hence the business activity of customer retention is given more importance in the hospitality sector than the other industries. It is after all the increasing number of loyalists towards a hotel brand that makes the particular business sustainable in the market competition. The loyal customers are the ones who promote the brand of hospitality through word of mouth publicity and sharing of their experiences thus enhancing viral marketing for the respective brand (N. Torres and Kline, 2013). This in turn helps in gaining new customers. In the changing market scenario flooded with umpteen opportunities for the discerning customers to choose the hospitality experience that suite the best of his needs, it has b ecome a literal challenge to retain customers since the substitutes are more and the customers are in look out for similar or enhanced service features within an affordable price. Factors Influencing Customer Retention The most crucial factor that influences a customer to come back to a particular hotel time and again is the degree of satisfaction that he gets during his stay in the property. It is more often than not the quality of service that matters the most in creating a loyal base of customers as has been pointed out by Ladhari, (2009). The factor of customer loyalty not only enhances the business of a hospitality brand manifold but also helps the organisation in its pricing strategy, since the loyalists would not cringe to pay premium price for enhanced levels of satisfaction. There are several other factors such as customer relationship management, brand image and technological advancements that play an important part in retaining the customers of hospitality organisations. The issue of customer retention is of global importance and therefore the premium hotel brands like Hilton, Marriott etc has invested time, efforts and economic resources in developing the customer experiences, the rappo rt with the customers and in delivering customised services to their valued clients. The adoption of value added customer recognition and identification systems by several hospitality brands has tremendously helped in retaining the customers because these visitors get more attenuated to the recognition and respect in such hotels. The planning of operational strategies according to Han, Kim and Hyun, (2011), is crucial for the hotels since on one hand while a certain set of customers look for price or variety, the other half of customers simply look for quality of service. Thus adopting the fundamental principle of addressing the specific demand and needs of the customers can only result in customer retention and gaining of competitive advantage in the long run. Relationships Between Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, Service Quality and Perceived Value in Hospitality Industry In the research conducted by Hu, Kandampully and Juwaheer, (2009), in a sporting club hotel on the topic of evolution of element of customer satisfaction, it was found that adoption of a structured model of customer relationship management has intensified the satisfaction level of the customers. In the domain of interrelationship and correlation between the components of customer satisfaction, service quality, performance of the hotels and management of human resources, the study by Tajeddini, (2010), contributed considerably in reshaping and empowering the process of quality of service in a hotel through the five dimensions of empathy, assurance, tangibility, responsiveness and reliability. The study reflected the aspects of impact of human resource over customer satisfaction and quality of service along with the impact of the quality of service over the satisfaction of customers, thereby emphasising on the role of customer satisfaction towards the organisational performance. A rese arch conducted on the hotels in the Penang district of Malaysia by Mohammed and Rashid, (2012) for recognising the correlation that exists between customer loyalties, customer satisfaction, quality of service, service standards and perceived value of consumers revealed a substantial degree of influence on the customer satisfaction from the perceived value of consumers, impact of quality of service over the perceived value and how brand loyalty results from customer satisfaction. A thorough research by Dominici and Guzzo, (2010), on the topic of the effect of quality of service on the hospitality sector stated a strong connection between customer loyalty, customer satisfaction and service quality. An experiment by Amin et al, (2013), focusing on the connection between customer loyalty, satisfaction and service quality in the process of repetitive service usage depicted that the quality of service is burdened by the effect of sensitivity, compassion and guarantee which as a consequenc e makes it responsive towards satisfaction of customers. It is the degree of satisfaction that is instrumental in intermittently pulling the consumer towards the property. The growth of the hotel industry thus is dependent largely on the aspect of customer satisfaction. The impact of customer satisfaction is hugely dependant on the quality of service delivered by the hotel. Through the process of getting exposed to high quality of service repetitively, the perception of the consumers changes and loyalty results towards the respective brand. Customer Retention Management Creation of customers has been always the sole purpose of any business according to Wu and Lu, (2012), and in the present times it has become quite important that the customers are also retained since the report of N. Torres and Kline, (2013) highlighted the correlation between the increases in net present value of customers to that of an increase in the aspect of customer retention. The report revealed that with a 5% increase in the latter, the former recorded an increase of 25-95%. Like products the customers do have a lifecycle that can be managed by the organisations. On the value ladder the customers climb from the stages of suspect, prospect and first time customers towards a loyal one and ending in the advocating status. In the past the customers were not given much of importance and competing in the growing markets made the companies put lesser focus on the aspect of customer satisfaction. A constant loss and gain of customers resulted in increased costs and it was observed b y Amin et al, (2013) that if such loss or defection of customers can be reduced by 5% then the improvements in the margin of profits can be around 25-100%. Kim, Ng and Kim, (2009) asserted that when the company is able to retain customers for long period of time, it basically means that the same customers are repeatedly acquiring the products in increasing volumes, and are also eager to try new offerings from the brand turning a blind eye towards the competitors, which incidentally is helping the company reduce its cost of marketing and sales, since positive word-of-mouth publicity by the retained customers is helping in growth and promotion of the brand among more and more people. Customer retention thus can be termed as an asset that produces revenue for the firm. Customer retention, if targeted on the section of customers that fall in the low-cost high value bracket becomes a rewarding proposition for the business. Customer value, profitability and customer retention is correlated and purchasers get subjected to the benefits of timely delivery, price, pre and post sales services, quality and convenience through this unique combination as has been highlighted by He, Li and Keung Lai, (2011). The buyers on gaining satisfaction share their experiences and more often than not end up being a loyalist of the brand. The economic benefits of customer retention are lengthened tenure of customers, growth in the volume of purchases and increase in the number of customer referrals. Such benefits result in fall in the maintenance cost of the customers and the replacements costs and an eventual higher price payment by the retained customers which leads to an upswing in the net present value of the customers thus retained. The benefits of customer retention as reiterated by Lee and Way, (2010) states: Cost of customer retention is cheaper than that of acquisition Less cost involved in serving loyal customers over the new ones Improvement of company reputation and attracting new ones through word-of-mouth promotion Price sensitivity is lesser in retained customers than the new ones thus willingness to pay more is higher amongst the former over the latter Likelihood of purchasing greater volumes by retained customers resulting in the increase of revenue for the brand through cross or up-selling. Customer Retention Processes in Hotel Industry LoyaltyPrograms In the competitive global environment the quality of service and satisfaction of the customers have become vital components for hospitality industry to retain its respective market share in its business domain. Mohammed and Rashid, (2012), in their research suggested investment in quality engraining in the delivery and production systems in business to optimise the operational performances. The loyalty or reward programs in the hotel industry are aimed at the establishment profitable and valuable customer segment retention through value additions and increasing of the aspect of satisfaction. A case study conducted by Han and Ryu, (2009), stated that in the early 80s there was a gradual shift among the companies to embrace the concept of customer loyalty as it was observed that customer acquisition was more costly than retention. The study highlighted that success can be gained by the hotels through developments of loyal customer base by delivering better service and product through d isplay of conviction and passion in their hospitable activities. The significance of the customer loyalty programs has not only stiffened the competition between various brands but also their initiatives of building loyalty have developed over time. The implementation of the loyalty programs according to Castellanos-Verdugo et al., (2009), thus have become the benchmark of success and an imperative cost that the hotels indulge in to reap long term growth and success. There are however a number of factors that are dependant for the loyalty program to be effective as these programs serve many purposes like increasing the degree of consumption, retention of the customers and gaining awareness about the customers perspective. The measures of success that are to be included in the loyalty programs must relate to the organisational goals (Abu and Minai, 2009). According to Hu, Kandampully and Juwaheer, (2009), loyal customers are the most valuable assets of any organisation and it is the degree of satisfaction that is received through the relationship which in turn, strengthens the commitment of the customers towards the brand. The research conducted by Tajeddini, (2010), revealed that loyalty programs are perceived as value for money by the customers. The prevalence of reward programs in the service sector of hospitality was observed from the year 2000. The financial performance of the companies in the long run competition is positively influenced by the incremental degree of loyalty and customer satisfaction as has been suggested by Ladhari, (2009). In the service sector of hospitality, the aspect of switching the service providers by customers is dependent on multifarious factors such as failure of core services, inconvenience, price, ethical problems and competition. However in the re-emphasised study of Dominici and Guzzo, (2010), it was pointed out that decision of repurchase was influenced by the factors of price and most importantly the prior levels of satisfaction. A marked enthusiasm has been observed lately among the hotel sector customers to embrace the loyalty programs despite its more than a few decades long existence. As all customers aim to receive value for their money, it becomes quite challenging to guarantee satisfaction to all of them but the efficacy of enhanced levels of brand loyalty from high degree of customer satisfaction cannot be overlooked in the practice and theory of customer retention (Han, Kim and Hyun, 2011). Chapter Summary The review of the literature thus has highlighted the facts and information about the causes, effects, implications and interrelationships between the various facets of customer retention namely, loyalty, satisfaction, perceived value, quality of service and management of retention in general as well as the in the context of the hotel industry. It has also stated the importance of managing the customer retention initiatives through the designing of loyalty programs so that success and growth can be ensured to the hotel brands in the market competition. References Han, H., Kim, W. and Hyun, S.S., 2011. Switching intention model development: Role of service performances, customer satisfaction, and switching barriers in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(3), pp.619-629. Dominici, G. and Guzzo, R., 2010. Customer satisfaction in the hotel industry: a case study from Sicily. Ladhari, R., 2009. Service quality, emotional satisfaction, and behavioural intentions: A study in the hotel industry. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 19(3), pp.308-331. Tajeddini, K., 2010. Effect of customer orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on innovativeness: Evidence from the hotel industry in Switzerland. Tourism Management, 31(2), pp.221-231. Hu, H.H., Kandampully, J. and Juwaheer, T.D., 2009. Relationships and impacts of service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and image: an empirical study. The Service Industries Journal, 29(2), pp.111-125. Abu Kasim, N.A. and Minai, B., 2009. Linking CRM strategy, customer performance measures and performance in the hotel industry. International Journal of Economics and Management, 3(2), pp.297-316. Castellanos-Verdugo, M., de los ngeles Oviedo-Garca, M., Roldn, J.L. and Veerapermal, N., 2009. The employee-customer relationship quality: Antecedents and consequences in the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(3), pp.251-274. Han, H. and Ryu, K., 2009. The roles of the physical environment, price perception, and customer satisfaction in determining customer loyalty in the restaurant industry. Journal of Hospitality Tourism Research, 33(4), pp.487-510. Mohammed, A.A. and Rashid, B., 2012. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in Hotel Industry: A framework proposal on the relationship among CRM dimensions, Marketing Capabilities, and Hotel performance.International Review of Management and Marketing,2(4), p.220. Lee, C. and Way, K., 2010. Individual employment characteristics of hotel employees that play a role in employee satisfaction and work retention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(3), pp.344-353. He, Y., Li, W. and Keung Lai, K., 2011. Service climate, employee commitment and customer satisfaction: evidence from the hospitality industry in China. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(5), pp.592-607. Kim, W.G., Ng, C.Y.N. and Kim, Y.S., 2009. Influence of institutional DINESERV on customer satisfaction, return intention, and word-of-mouth. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(1), pp.10-17. Amin, M., Yahya, Z., Ismayatim, W.F.A., Nasharuddin, S.Z. and Kassim, E., 2013. Service quality dimension and customer satisfaction: an empirical study in the Malaysian hotel industry. Services Marketing Quarterly, 34(2), pp.115-125. Torres, E. and Kline, S., 2013. From customer satisfaction to customer delight: Creating a new standard of service for the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(5), pp.642-659. Wu, S.I. and Lu, C.L., 2012. The relationship between CRM, RM, and business performance: A study of the hotel industry in Taiwan. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), pp.276-285. Osman, H., Hemmington, N. and Bowie, D., 2009. A transactional approach to customer loyalty in the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(3), pp.239-250. Grissemann, U., Plank, A. and Brunner-Sperdin, A., 2013. Enhancing business performance of hotels: The role of innovation and customer orientation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 33, pp.347-356. Yoo, M., Lee, S. and Bai, B., 2011. Hospitality marketing research from 2000 to 2009: topics, methods, and trends. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(4), pp.517-532.