Sunday, May 24, 2020

Observational Taxonomy for Children - 1342 Words

Observational taxonomy as it relates to the nature of early social interaction, is a classification system that uses a code of different behaviors that are seen when observing children during play and non-play and is further divided into cognitive and social categories. Amongst the many theorists, Mildred Parten and Jean Piaget are significant to the field of early observational studies comprising of children in the free play atmosphere. Parten asserted that social participation amongst preschool aged children amplified as the child’s age increased (Parten 1932). To support her logic she categorized play into six distinct categories of social participation which include unoccupied behavior, solitary play, onlooker behavior, parallel play,†¦show more content†¦This vision is brought to life as their children are guided to question, hypothesize, solve problems, and express themselves creatively (Department of Human Development). The fascinating teachers at the CYC respect and apprehend the individuality of each child they come across. The main objective of this paper is to fully compare the social expansion of two arbitrary children while critically analyzing their participation in solitary and group activities, and their technique of interacting with the teacher and other adults in the classroom setting. Robert and Ariel both 3  ½- 4 years were observed at the Center for Young Children, UMCP for 15minutes each with 15 other students and 3 adults; one head teacher and 2 assistant. Robert playing by himself grabbed a piece of construction paper and is drawing a picture. He hands it to the teacher to hold so that he can cut through it. He is laughing while cutting through the paper and interacting with the teacher the entire time. Robert is playing with the glue bottle; he keeps stacking and throwing it down. Teacher tells him it is not the right thing to do. Robert continues to laugh and knock down the glue bottle. He finds this amusing as he giggles and laughs while the teacher is talking to him. The teacher is explaining to him that if other kids see him doingShow MoreRelatedBloom s Taxonomy Assessment Observation1134 Words   |  5 Pages Bloom’s Taxonomy Assessment Observation Observation Setting I observed a teacher at the Salem Preschool on Tuesday, October 24, 2017. The time was around 10:05, which is Circle Time. Observational Assessment Questions 1. Did you notice someone is absent today? Who is it? This is an example of an analyzing question because the students were being asked to study their surroundings to figure out who did not come to class that morning. 2. What’s the first month of theRead MoreThe Perspectives Of Albert Banduras Social Learning Theory1237 Words   |  5 Pagesto its inclusion of motivation, memory and attention. This style of learning was depicted clearly through the 1961 Bobo doll experiment, here Bandura has models show violence to a portion of the 72 children selected, this aggression was replicated by the children, confirming the process of observational learning (Nolan, 2009). Ultimately this can be translated onto the ambulance service by poor clinical practice, the student may replicate this, accepted by the weaker clinician and when challengedRead MoreBehavioral Learning Child Development Observation1597 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Introduction Theories of child development can be tied to particular philosophical groundings of the major schools of psychology. This paper will provide the basis for the application of behavioral learning theory to an observation of three children in a natural context. A discussion of the rationale for choosing behavioral learning theory over cognitive, contextual, psychodynamic, or social-cognitive learning precedes the explication of behavioral learning theory. As summary of notes and conclusionsRead MoreThe Field of Social Psychology Used to Develop a Personal Theory2101 Words   |  8 Pagesimproves the overall psychological affect of the individual within the context of his or her social interactions. In this regard, this project first examines several core theories within the field of social psychology. These core theories are: observational learning theory, self-perception theory, drive theory and attribution theory. Subsequently, these theories are discussed in the context of a personal theory of social psychology and applied to a real-world scenario. The real-world scenario thatRead MoreProfessional Development : A Teacher s Recognition Of Individual Learning Styles1960 Words   |  8 PagesDevelopment Theory, and Humanistic Theory. Behaviourist Learning Theory suggests that behaviour is influenced by environmental factors (Gross and Kinninson, 2012). This can be further categorised into classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. Pavlov (1927), Watson (1930), Skinner (1938), and Bandura (1971), predominantly researched into these theories. They each offered significant evaluation from their research. Ivan Pavlov and John Watson both researched and developed theRead MoreEssay on Basic Concepts in Attachment Theory2804 Words   |  12 Pagessecurity. This system is first evident early in life as children interact with their primary caregiver. When they are physically or psychologically threatened, children turn to their caregiver for comfort, and ideally their caregiver responds with immediate, positive, and consistent support. In reality, of course, caregivers do not always respond in ways that children expect. On the basis of their accumulated experiences with caregivers, children develop mental representations, or internal working modelsRead MoreChild Observation Report Essay example1832 Words   |  8 Pagesencourage positive attitudes toward other children, and more importantly, learn to interact with people around them in the contemporary world. However, art for young students often takes many diversified approaches and emphasizing questionable practices. Observation is a p art of meaningful and authentic early childhood art education. Observation enriches children’s experiences in their environment, gives them motivation to study, interact with other children and follow the practices of their adultRead MoreFreud s Theory Of Psychosexual Stages Of Development And Costa And Mccrae s Five Factor Model2237 Words   |  9 Pagesand any similarities found. The key strength of Costa and McCrae’s model was providing a detailed and structured analysis of personality that is scientifically based however was limited in explaining the origin of Judy’s personality. Freud’s observational method using the Rorschach has little scientific evidence however his theory did provide explanations for how Jane’s personality developed. While there were many differences some similarities were also found with the most interesting that finalRead MoreGorilla Gorillas And Western Lowland Gorilla Essay1991 Words   |  8 PagesGorilla, withi n the Suborder Haplorhini (Table 1). G. gorilla gorilla is found in Central to Western Africa in lowlands, swamps, and tropical and subtropical forests (San Diego Zoo Global 2006; World Wildlife Fund n.d.a.). Table 1. G. gorilla gorilla Taxonomy Suborder Haplorhini Infraorder Simiiformes Superfamily Hominoidea Family Hominidae Genus Gorilla Species G. gorilla Subspecies G. gorilla gorilla Source: Primate Info Net (Cawthon Lang 2005) Western lowland gorillas are sexually dimorphic with theRead MorePsy 244 Essay10464 Words   |  42 Pagesconcerned for the health and well-being of infants and children. Were they interested to the same degree in the psychology of infants and children? For example, did they understand that children are psychologically different from adults? If yes, how did they show this? If no, how did they show this? Explain your answer. ïÆ'  They showed kids in pictures dressed like adults; faces and bodies were like adults. E.g. Phillip Aries â€Å"small children at play† 3. One of the most famous speeches in Shakespeare’s

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Standardized Testing Is Not Be Completely Honest I Do Not...

Standardize Testing Being completely honest I do not know much about standardized test. I remember having to take them as a student in elementary and junior high. I knew that I would not be receiving a letter grade on these test. I remember never stressing about taking the test. To be honest if I did not understand the question I was the kid that just made a design on the answer sheet. I absolutely was not aware of the reasoning or purpose of test. As a parent, I see my kids stress out about taking the standardize test. As a parent this concerns me. I don t know about you, I don t want my kiddo stressing out about a standardize test. I need to know about these test. How did they come about, what is the purpose, does standardize test benefit students, teachers or schools and are they truly beneficial to my child s education. Standardize test are a result from that No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The NCLB became a law in 2002 by President George W. Bush. The reason for NCLB was a growing concern that the American education system was no longer internationally competitive ­Ã‚ ­ - significantly increased the federal role in holding schools responsible for the academic progress of all students. (Klein, 2015). NCLB purpose is to ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging State academic achievement standards and state academic assessments. This purpose can beShow MoreRelatedStandardized Testing Is Not Be Completely Honest, I Do Not Know About Standardized Test1363 Words   |  6 PagesStandardize Testing Being completely honest, I do not know much about standardized test. I remember having to take them as a student in elementary and junior high. I knew that I would not be receiving a letter grade on these tests. I remember never stressing about taking the test. To be honest if I did not understand the question I was the kid that just made a design on the answer sheet. I absolutely was not aware of the reasoning or purpose of tests. As a parent, I see my kids stress out about takingRead MoreCode Of Ethics Is Absolutely Essential For Every Education Major1297 Words   |  6 Pagescode is labeled Standard 1: Legal Compliance. This code states that an educator must abide by state, federal, and local laws and includes but is not limited to the conviction of a felony, crimes involving moral turpitude; including anything having to do with the sale or possession of drugs, and sexual crimes such as trafficking or assault. If educators fail to follow the law, they are at risk of losing their certificate and will most likely have to be proven guilty or not guilty in order to determineRead MoreEssay on Feasability of Self-Assessment in ESL Classrooms3368 Words   |  14 Pagescomponents of the education. Traditional exams and tests are mostly based on materials taught in the course to meet predetermined objectives. They cannot assess whether or not learners can apply it. To truly understand some new ideas, students need to apply it. My experience as an English teacher provides some ideas to frame my discussion of assessment. Although many teachers think that the scores of the exams and the tests are objective and cannot be wrong, I think that these scores are uncertain they needRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )2303 Words   |  10 Pagesa relatively vague illness, and this sort of variance is frightening. Without any stability in these areas, the impression of ADHD becomes more and more unclear. As someone who has been diagnosed with ADHD, yet does not feel affected by the illness; I believe clarifying the mystery that is ADHD is enormously important and both the public perception and academic research play a role in this. From the beginning of each article, the differences in genres stick out. For the popular articles, the titlesRead MoreToo Far Ahead of the It6117 Words   |  25 Pagesconsensus about Peachtree Healthcare’s long-term aims and how best to achieve them. Paul—like other board members and some in Max’s management inner circle—was applying constant pressure on Max to follow the example of others in the health care industry: Push ahead on standards and on the systems and processes to support them. â€Å"You’ve got all the hospitals doing things differently. You’ve got incompatible technology that’s held together by sweat and ingenuity and, possibly, prayer. Just do what otherRead MoreToyota - a Brief History10847 Words   |  44 PagesToyota and Why It Is So Successful The History of Toyota For organizational convenience I will discuss Toyota history as follows: †¢ The start †¢ The 1940s †¢ The 1950s †¢ Etc. The start. The Toyota Motor Corp. (TMC) had its beginning in 1933 when it was established as a division within the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, Ltd. The founder of Toyota was Kiichiro Toyoda (1894–1952), the son of Sakichi Toyoda (1867–1930). The values that have underpinned Toyota success startedwith Sakichi who was the sonRead MoreGrading System Rationale6250 Words   |  25 Pageseducators than those associated with grading and reporting student learning. Despite the many debates and multitudes of studies, however, prescriptions for best practice remain elusive. Although teachers generally try to develop grading policies that are honest and fair, strong evidence shows that their practices vary widely, even among those who teach at the same grade level within the same school. In essence, grading is an exercise in professional judgment on the part of teachers. It involves the collectionRead MoreA Concise Guide to Market Research Using Spss71933 Words   |  288 Pagesnoses, 7% to clean mirrors, 3% to clean children’s faces and hands, and 8% use it to remove make-up. Further research led Procter Gamble to believe that the optimal tissue color is blue/yellow and that the package needed to be cubic. Advertising tests showed that the Charmin bear worked well, giving the product an emotional appeal. In the end, Procter Gamble launched Charmin successfully in an already saturated market. In order to gain useful consumer insights, which allowed the company to optimizeRead MoreEmployee Retention Techniques in Wipro9775 Words   |  40 Pages ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to express my deep gratitude to all those who helped me in the completion of this study. This work is the result of direct and indirect cooperation of various persons to whom, I wish to express my gratitude. It is my proud prerogative to place on record my sincere thanks to I am highly indebted to my faculty guide Mr. GAURAV GUPTA who despite his busy schedule , took out time and helped me with his valuable inputs form time to time . I am highly indebtedRead MoreThe reddit study guide9469 Words   |  38 Pages---------------------------------------------------------------- Good students: How do you go about getting good grades? [Serious]  (self.AskReddit) submitted  1 day ago  *  by  irollon ---------------------------------------------------------------- 18 July 14, Friday Asked by irollon Collated by Salticido Exported to Word by SailboatoMD Contents # Topic Contributor Page Remarks 1 GOAT ME Salticido 2 + Summary 2 Study/Test Environment lshdevanarchist 7 3 Feel the Teacher Hawkian

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Night Stalker Free Essays

Ricardo â€Å"Richard† Munoz Ramirez born February 28, 1960 is a convicted serial killer and is awaiting execution on California’s death row. Before his capture, Ramirez was dubbed the â€Å"Night Stalker† by the mass media. Munoz’s crimes stem from murder to rape and home invasion, his first victim was on April 10, 1984, 9-year-old Mei Leung was found dead in a hotel basement where Ramirez was living at the time. We will write a custom essay sample on Night Stalker or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ramirez’s DNA was matched to DNA obtained at the 1984 crime scene in 2009. On June 28, 1984, 79-year-old Jennie Vincow was found dead in her apartment. She had been stabbed repeatedly, and her throat was slashed so severely she was almost decapitated. On February 21, 1985, Sisters Christina and Mary Caldwell, aged 58 and 71, were found dead in their home. They each were stabbed dozens of times. On March 17, 1985, Ramirez attacked 22-year-old Angela Barrios outside her home. He shot her before entering her house. Inside was Dayle Okazaki, age 34, who Ramirez immediately shot and killed. Within an hour of killing Okazaki, Ramirez again attacked 30-year-old Tsai-Lian Yu, he pulled her out of her car onto the road. He shot her several times and fled. The two attacks occurring on the same day sparked media attention, and caused panic and fear among the public. On March 27, Ramirez shot Vincent Zazzara, age 64, and his wife Maxine, age 44. Mrs. Zazzara’s body was mutilated with several stab wounds. Bullets found at the scene were matched to those found at previous attacks, and the police realized a serial killer was on the loose. Two months after killing the Zazarra couple, Ramirez attacked a Chinese couple: Harold Wu, age 66, who was shot in the head, and his wife, Jean Wu, age 63, who was punched, bound, and then violently raped. On May 29, 1985, Ramirez attacked Malvial Keller, 83, and her disabled sister, Blanche Wolfe, 80, beating each with a hammer. Ramirez attempted to rape Keller, but failed. The next day, Ruth Wilson, 41, was bound, raped, and sodomized by Ramirez, while her 12-year-old son was locked in a closet. Ramirez slashed Wilson once, and then bound her and her son together, and left. On June 2, 1985 Edward Wildgans, 29, was shot and killed by Ramirez. His girlfriend was raped several times by Ramirez but survived. On July 5, sixteen-year-old Whitney Bennett survived after being beaten with a tire iron by Ramirez. On July 7, Linda Fortuna, 63, was attacked and Ramirez tried to rape her, but failed. On July 20, he again struck twice he shot and killed a 32-year-old man, Chitat Assawahem, and his wife Sakima, 29, was beaten and forced to perform oral intercourse. Later in the same day a Glendale couple, Maxson Kneiding, 66, and his wife Lela, also 66, were shot and killed. On August 6, Ramirez shot both Christopher Petersen, 38, and his wife, Virginia, 27, in the head. Amazingly, they both survived. On August 8, Ramirez attacked a couple, fatally shooting Ahmed Zia, 35, before raping Zia’s wife, Suu Kyi, 28. Ramirez then left Los Angeles area, and on August 17, he shot to death a 66-year-old man in San Francisco, also shooting and beating his wife. The wife survived her wounds and was able to identify her attacker from police sketches as the attacker from other similar previous attacks. August 24, 1985, Ramirez traveled broke apartment of Bill Carns, 29, and his fiancee, Inez Erickson, 27. Ramirez shot Carns in the head and raped Erickson. Munoz had stolen the couple’s car and was found on August 28, and police were able to obtain one fingerprint that was on the mirror of the vehicle. The prints belonged to Richard Munoz Ramirez, who was described as a 25-year-old drifter from Texas with a long rap sheet that included many arrests for traffic and illegal drug violations. Two days later, his mugshots were broadcast on national television and printed on the cover of every major newspaper in California. The next day Ramirez was identified, chased, surrounded, and severely beaten by an angry mob in East Los Angeles as he was trying to steal a car. Police had to break up the mob to prevent them from killing Ramirez. On September 20, 1989, he was found guilty of 13 counts of murder, 5 attempted murders, 11 sexual assaults and 14 burglaries. During the penalty phase of the trial on November 7, 1989, he was sentenced to die in California’s gas chamber. The trial of Richard Ramirez was one of the most difficult and longest criminal trials in American history, taking over four years to finalize. Almost 1,600 prospective jurors were interviewed. More than one hundred witnesses testified, and while a number of witnesses had a difficult time recalling certain facts four years after the crimes, others were quite certain of the identity of Richard Ramirez. References The Night Stalker by Philip Carlo pg. 191 ch. 20 â€Å"I’M YOUR NIGHT PROWLER: Interview with Richard Ramirez† (Interview). FEAST OF HATE AND FEAR. Issue 6: FEAST OF HATE AND FEAR. 1996. http://listography. com/showder/serial_killers. /the_victims_of_richard_ram%C3% How to cite Night Stalker, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Customer Retention in Hospitality Industry Free Sample

Question: Discuss about theCustomer Retention in Hospitality Industryfor Hilton Hotel. Answer: Introduction This section of the research study involves review of the secondary sources of information on the topic of research from the journals on the research issue, blogs, earlier researches, online texts, industry databases and published articles to aid the development of a theoretical perspective about the variables of the study. In the service sector of hospitality, customer as the end user of the service is the fulcrum of all business strategies and decisions, hence its retention is of paramount importance to augur organisational success and growth in the market competition. Therefore through the review of the established theories and perspectives on the issue of customer retention, a critical analysis of the various facets of customer retention, its significance and implications in the service sector of hospitality would form part of the study in this section. The case study organisation of Hilton Hotel has been confronting hurdles lately in its customer relationship management leading to a loss of customers, thus making it pertinent to conduct the present research so that a comprehensive awareness can be developed about the issue of customer retention, and recommendations can be formulated on the basis of findings to help the brand retain its global reputation among its clientele. Hilton Hotel has a strong brand presence in over 90 countries with a staggering number of 4000 properties. The brand gained immense global popularity due to its utilisation as the integrative force behind many films and television serials. The brand boasts of over 150,000 employees and is known for its endowment of its workforce relationship along with a sound relationship with its customers. Customer Retention in Hospitality Sector Customer retention according to Osman, Hemmington and Bowie, (2009) is the prime cause for the sustainability of the hospitality organisations as the prime objective of the hospitality sector centres around fructification of the goals desired by the customers. On the face of stiff emerging global competitiveness, the marketing activities tend to reveal a downwards slide making it almost imperative for the hoteliers to adopt a stable and modern marketing strategy that involves incorporation of programs that aims at the development of customer loyalty towards the respective brand. Generation of customer loyalty as stated by Yoo, Lee and Bai, (2011), in the current hospitality industry scenario makes customer acquisition and retention the prime focus for long run sustainability in the market competition. Not only attracting the new set of customers is mandatory for the maintenance of a steady flow of revenue and profits from the business but maintaining the old customers are equally vit al for the growth of the enterprise. The hotel industry as stated by Grissemann, Plank and Brunner-Sperdin, (2013), survives purely on the basis of customer retention since it concerns repeated purchase of services and products of the similar nature over a specific period of time. Hence the business activity of customer retention is given more importance in the hospitality sector than the other industries. It is after all the increasing number of loyalists towards a hotel brand that makes the particular business sustainable in the market competition. The loyal customers are the ones who promote the brand of hospitality through word of mouth publicity and sharing of their experiences thus enhancing viral marketing for the respective brand (N. Torres and Kline, 2013). This in turn helps in gaining new customers. In the changing market scenario flooded with umpteen opportunities for the discerning customers to choose the hospitality experience that suite the best of his needs, it has b ecome a literal challenge to retain customers since the substitutes are more and the customers are in look out for similar or enhanced service features within an affordable price. Factors Influencing Customer Retention The most crucial factor that influences a customer to come back to a particular hotel time and again is the degree of satisfaction that he gets during his stay in the property. It is more often than not the quality of service that matters the most in creating a loyal base of customers as has been pointed out by Ladhari, (2009). The factor of customer loyalty not only enhances the business of a hospitality brand manifold but also helps the organisation in its pricing strategy, since the loyalists would not cringe to pay premium price for enhanced levels of satisfaction. There are several other factors such as customer relationship management, brand image and technological advancements that play an important part in retaining the customers of hospitality organisations. The issue of customer retention is of global importance and therefore the premium hotel brands like Hilton, Marriott etc has invested time, efforts and economic resources in developing the customer experiences, the rappo rt with the customers and in delivering customised services to their valued clients. The adoption of value added customer recognition and identification systems by several hospitality brands has tremendously helped in retaining the customers because these visitors get more attenuated to the recognition and respect in such hotels. The planning of operational strategies according to Han, Kim and Hyun, (2011), is crucial for the hotels since on one hand while a certain set of customers look for price or variety, the other half of customers simply look for quality of service. Thus adopting the fundamental principle of addressing the specific demand and needs of the customers can only result in customer retention and gaining of competitive advantage in the long run. Relationships Between Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, Service Quality and Perceived Value in Hospitality Industry In the research conducted by Hu, Kandampully and Juwaheer, (2009), in a sporting club hotel on the topic of evolution of element of customer satisfaction, it was found that adoption of a structured model of customer relationship management has intensified the satisfaction level of the customers. In the domain of interrelationship and correlation between the components of customer satisfaction, service quality, performance of the hotels and management of human resources, the study by Tajeddini, (2010), contributed considerably in reshaping and empowering the process of quality of service in a hotel through the five dimensions of empathy, assurance, tangibility, responsiveness and reliability. The study reflected the aspects of impact of human resource over customer satisfaction and quality of service along with the impact of the quality of service over the satisfaction of customers, thereby emphasising on the role of customer satisfaction towards the organisational performance. A rese arch conducted on the hotels in the Penang district of Malaysia by Mohammed and Rashid, (2012) for recognising the correlation that exists between customer loyalties, customer satisfaction, quality of service, service standards and perceived value of consumers revealed a substantial degree of influence on the customer satisfaction from the perceived value of consumers, impact of quality of service over the perceived value and how brand loyalty results from customer satisfaction. A thorough research by Dominici and Guzzo, (2010), on the topic of the effect of quality of service on the hospitality sector stated a strong connection between customer loyalty, customer satisfaction and service quality. An experiment by Amin et al, (2013), focusing on the connection between customer loyalty, satisfaction and service quality in the process of repetitive service usage depicted that the quality of service is burdened by the effect of sensitivity, compassion and guarantee which as a consequenc e makes it responsive towards satisfaction of customers. It is the degree of satisfaction that is instrumental in intermittently pulling the consumer towards the property. The growth of the hotel industry thus is dependent largely on the aspect of customer satisfaction. The impact of customer satisfaction is hugely dependant on the quality of service delivered by the hotel. Through the process of getting exposed to high quality of service repetitively, the perception of the consumers changes and loyalty results towards the respective brand. Customer Retention Management Creation of customers has been always the sole purpose of any business according to Wu and Lu, (2012), and in the present times it has become quite important that the customers are also retained since the report of N. Torres and Kline, (2013) highlighted the correlation between the increases in net present value of customers to that of an increase in the aspect of customer retention. The report revealed that with a 5% increase in the latter, the former recorded an increase of 25-95%. Like products the customers do have a lifecycle that can be managed by the organisations. On the value ladder the customers climb from the stages of suspect, prospect and first time customers towards a loyal one and ending in the advocating status. In the past the customers were not given much of importance and competing in the growing markets made the companies put lesser focus on the aspect of customer satisfaction. A constant loss and gain of customers resulted in increased costs and it was observed b y Amin et al, (2013) that if such loss or defection of customers can be reduced by 5% then the improvements in the margin of profits can be around 25-100%. Kim, Ng and Kim, (2009) asserted that when the company is able to retain customers for long period of time, it basically means that the same customers are repeatedly acquiring the products in increasing volumes, and are also eager to try new offerings from the brand turning a blind eye towards the competitors, which incidentally is helping the company reduce its cost of marketing and sales, since positive word-of-mouth publicity by the retained customers is helping in growth and promotion of the brand among more and more people. Customer retention thus can be termed as an asset that produces revenue for the firm. Customer retention, if targeted on the section of customers that fall in the low-cost high value bracket becomes a rewarding proposition for the business. Customer value, profitability and customer retention is correlated and purchasers get subjected to the benefits of timely delivery, price, pre and post sales services, quality and convenience through this unique combination as has been highlighted by He, Li and Keung Lai, (2011). The buyers on gaining satisfaction share their experiences and more often than not end up being a loyalist of the brand. The economic benefits of customer retention are lengthened tenure of customers, growth in the volume of purchases and increase in the number of customer referrals. Such benefits result in fall in the maintenance cost of the customers and the replacements costs and an eventual higher price payment by the retained customers which leads to an upswing in the net present value of the customers thus retained. The benefits of customer retention as reiterated by Lee and Way, (2010) states: Cost of customer retention is cheaper than that of acquisition Less cost involved in serving loyal customers over the new ones Improvement of company reputation and attracting new ones through word-of-mouth promotion Price sensitivity is lesser in retained customers than the new ones thus willingness to pay more is higher amongst the former over the latter Likelihood of purchasing greater volumes by retained customers resulting in the increase of revenue for the brand through cross or up-selling. Customer Retention Processes in Hotel Industry LoyaltyPrograms In the competitive global environment the quality of service and satisfaction of the customers have become vital components for hospitality industry to retain its respective market share in its business domain. Mohammed and Rashid, (2012), in their research suggested investment in quality engraining in the delivery and production systems in business to optimise the operational performances. The loyalty or reward programs in the hotel industry are aimed at the establishment profitable and valuable customer segment retention through value additions and increasing of the aspect of satisfaction. A case study conducted by Han and Ryu, (2009), stated that in the early 80s there was a gradual shift among the companies to embrace the concept of customer loyalty as it was observed that customer acquisition was more costly than retention. The study highlighted that success can be gained by the hotels through developments of loyal customer base by delivering better service and product through d isplay of conviction and passion in their hospitable activities. The significance of the customer loyalty programs has not only stiffened the competition between various brands but also their initiatives of building loyalty have developed over time. The implementation of the loyalty programs according to Castellanos-Verdugo et al., (2009), thus have become the benchmark of success and an imperative cost that the hotels indulge in to reap long term growth and success. There are however a number of factors that are dependant for the loyalty program to be effective as these programs serve many purposes like increasing the degree of consumption, retention of the customers and gaining awareness about the customers perspective. The measures of success that are to be included in the loyalty programs must relate to the organisational goals (Abu and Minai, 2009). According to Hu, Kandampully and Juwaheer, (2009), loyal customers are the most valuable assets of any organisation and it is the degree of satisfaction that is received through the relationship which in turn, strengthens the commitment of the customers towards the brand. The research conducted by Tajeddini, (2010), revealed that loyalty programs are perceived as value for money by the customers. The prevalence of reward programs in the service sector of hospitality was observed from the year 2000. The financial performance of the companies in the long run competition is positively influenced by the incremental degree of loyalty and customer satisfaction as has been suggested by Ladhari, (2009). In the service sector of hospitality, the aspect of switching the service providers by customers is dependent on multifarious factors such as failure of core services, inconvenience, price, ethical problems and competition. However in the re-emphasised study of Dominici and Guzzo, (2010), it was pointed out that decision of repurchase was influenced by the factors of price and most importantly the prior levels of satisfaction. A marked enthusiasm has been observed lately among the hotel sector customers to embrace the loyalty programs despite its more than a few decades long existence. As all customers aim to receive value for their money, it becomes quite challenging to guarantee satisfaction to all of them but the efficacy of enhanced levels of brand loyalty from high degree of customer satisfaction cannot be overlooked in the practice and theory of customer retention (Han, Kim and Hyun, 2011). Chapter Summary The review of the literature thus has highlighted the facts and information about the causes, effects, implications and interrelationships between the various facets of customer retention namely, loyalty, satisfaction, perceived value, quality of service and management of retention in general as well as the in the context of the hotel industry. It has also stated the importance of managing the customer retention initiatives through the designing of loyalty programs so that success and growth can be ensured to the hotel brands in the market competition. References Han, H., Kim, W. and Hyun, S.S., 2011. Switching intention model development: Role of service performances, customer satisfaction, and switching barriers in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(3), pp.619-629. Dominici, G. and Guzzo, R., 2010. Customer satisfaction in the hotel industry: a case study from Sicily. Ladhari, R., 2009. Service quality, emotional satisfaction, and behavioural intentions: A study in the hotel industry. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 19(3), pp.308-331. Tajeddini, K., 2010. Effect of customer orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on innovativeness: Evidence from the hotel industry in Switzerland. Tourism Management, 31(2), pp.221-231. Hu, H.H., Kandampully, J. and Juwaheer, T.D., 2009. Relationships and impacts of service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and image: an empirical study. The Service Industries Journal, 29(2), pp.111-125. Abu Kasim, N.A. and Minai, B., 2009. Linking CRM strategy, customer performance measures and performance in the hotel industry. International Journal of Economics and Management, 3(2), pp.297-316. Castellanos-Verdugo, M., de los ngeles Oviedo-Garca, M., Roldn, J.L. and Veerapermal, N., 2009. The employee-customer relationship quality: Antecedents and consequences in the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(3), pp.251-274. Han, H. and Ryu, K., 2009. The roles of the physical environment, price perception, and customer satisfaction in determining customer loyalty in the restaurant industry. Journal of Hospitality Tourism Research, 33(4), pp.487-510. Mohammed, A.A. and Rashid, B., 2012. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in Hotel Industry: A framework proposal on the relationship among CRM dimensions, Marketing Capabilities, and Hotel performance.International Review of Management and Marketing,2(4), p.220. Lee, C. and Way, K., 2010. Individual employment characteristics of hotel employees that play a role in employee satisfaction and work retention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(3), pp.344-353. He, Y., Li, W. and Keung Lai, K., 2011. Service climate, employee commitment and customer satisfaction: evidence from the hospitality industry in China. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(5), pp.592-607. Kim, W.G., Ng, C.Y.N. and Kim, Y.S., 2009. Influence of institutional DINESERV on customer satisfaction, return intention, and word-of-mouth. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(1), pp.10-17. Amin, M., Yahya, Z., Ismayatim, W.F.A., Nasharuddin, S.Z. and Kassim, E., 2013. Service quality dimension and customer satisfaction: an empirical study in the Malaysian hotel industry. Services Marketing Quarterly, 34(2), pp.115-125. Torres, E. and Kline, S., 2013. From customer satisfaction to customer delight: Creating a new standard of service for the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(5), pp.642-659. Wu, S.I. and Lu, C.L., 2012. The relationship between CRM, RM, and business performance: A study of the hotel industry in Taiwan. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), pp.276-285. Osman, H., Hemmington, N. and Bowie, D., 2009. A transactional approach to customer loyalty in the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 21(3), pp.239-250. Grissemann, U., Plank, A. and Brunner-Sperdin, A., 2013. Enhancing business performance of hotels: The role of innovation and customer orientation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 33, pp.347-356. Yoo, M., Lee, S. and Bai, B., 2011. Hospitality marketing research from 2000 to 2009: topics, methods, and trends. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(4), pp.517-532.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

The gift of the magi, a continuation Essay Example For Students

The gift of the magi, a continuation Essay THE GIFT OF THE MAGIIt was one week from Dellas 30th birthday and Jim didnt have enough money to buy her a present. Well, Jim thought, if I dont have a watch then why should I have a chain for one? So, he sold his watchchain in order to have money for Dellas present. Now, what do I buy Della? he asked himself. I think Ill goto the flea market and look for something, because one little rusty old chain wont buy me very much, Jim statedas he started riding his bicycle to the market. At the market Jim found many things, some very pretty andexpensive, some very pretty and cheap, and some just plain ugly things that had been there awhile and alwayswould be until they were finally thrown away. Omigosh, is that DDDDeeDDDe? Jim stuttered inastonishment. Was what he had seen real? Or was he just jumping to conclusions? Was that really the hair thatDella had sold just 2 years ago? It was, and Jim thought that Della would maybe like it back, so he bought it for 2cents and he was so happy and he thought he had the best present anyone could ever give their girlfriend. Now,Jim thought, will this be a useful gift, and I dont mean in a few years, this time I want to get it right, So Jimthought for two days straight. Finally he came up with an idea, Ill make it into a wig, a girl can never have tomany wigs. So he went to the wig shop, which usually only made those white braided wigs that all the importantmen wore, but the wigmaker made an exception because Jim was a good friend and after all, it was for a girlsbirthday. The wigmaker asked, Are you sure Della will like this present, I mean it is rather odd, and Dellas hairhas already grown twice as long as this. But dont get me wrong, Im not trying to be rude, I mean, well I thinkIll just get started on this wig right away, okay, bye. So Jim left, thinking that the wigmaker was a little out ofhis mind that day. The next day, which was the day before Dellas birthday, the wigmaker called Jim. Hello, Umm, did youwant this wig dyed, or left red? And also, I cant make a wig that fits unless Dellas head is measured, what willyou do to find out without arousing her suspicions? Jim answered uncertainly, Well I guess Ill just have tothats all, and of course not, Dont you dare dye that beautiful color of hair, its the prettiest Ive ever seen. Thewigmaker replied, Okay, but I still need to know her head size very soon in order to finish the hat, are you sureyou like that color? Im not stupid, what I say I want is what I want. Now, I will bring the measurements overas soon as I get them, Jim replied rudely. We will write a custom essay on The gift of the magi, a continuation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Della, Jim replied, breathless from running all the way to the store and back to buy a tape measure, Ineed to get your measurements for something, could you come here? Della obeys thinking maybe a new dress as apresent. What measurements do you need, honey? Della answered in her sweetest voice. Jim said I need to getyour head size for something, thats all. Well, Okay, Della replied surprised at first, and then realized that shemust be getting a hat for her birthday. Later at the wig shop. There, its all finished; do you like it Jim? asked the wigmaker. Jim said, Itsgreat, dont you think? You dont look to sure about it? The wigmaker replied, lying, Its great, after all its thethought that counts, right?. Sure thing Phil, well, gotta go, tomorrows Dellas birthday, are you going to bethere? Sure Jim, Ill be there. Said the wigmaker. .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 , .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 .postImageUrl , .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 , .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9:hover , .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9:visited , .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9:active { border:0!important; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9:active , .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9 .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u5f7ba4b43143ba7356e709548d688bc9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Sir Gawain And The Green Knight EssayIt is Dellas birthday, all of Jim and Dellas friends are at their home, and she begins to open presents. She will be opening Jims present first. I wonder what it could be? Della claims, quite ecstatically. She untiesthe ribbon, carefully undoes the golden wrapping paper, opens the box, and slowly takes out the tissue paper, pieceby piece. Im really exited, she says as the first piece floats to the floor. I can hardly wait, I know it will begreat, she says as the second tissue is lifted up. This is the last one, its its its a wig!!! Della shoutsloudly and upset. It is just a piece of filthy old hair, worse yet its someone elses who coul d have germs. Howdare you, you, you Jim shouts back, in order to be heard by the roaring of Della, My sweet, its your very ownhair, the hair in which you cut off to buy me a Christmas present, doesnt that mean anything to you? And besides,I thought it was the thought that counted. But Della was to upset to listen to reason. She shouted at him, I hateyou, I really hate you. How dare you give me a worthless rag, get away from me, I never want to see you again, Impacking and leaving tomorrow! As she finished speaking she ran into her bedroom, locked the door, and droppedonto her bed, crying her eyes out. Della left the next day, not even saying goodbye to Jim. Jim was heartbroken. He moved away out of shame for being so dum. For the next 30 years he kept the wig, which had been thrownback in his face by his beloved, and he mourned his loss. He vowed that if he could ever se Della again, he couldmake up for his stupidity. It is 34 years after Della left Jim. Jim had previously been traveling the country, and eventually settledin Dellas home town, hoping that someday she too would return. Lucky for him, she did return, for her 64thbirthday. She wanted to spend it with her brother, David, and his family. David and Jim had been friends eversince they met when Della and Jim started seeing each other. David is how Jim had been keeping tabs on whereDella was. By now, Della was old, gray, with short ugly hair. On Dellas birthday, Jim showed up, with the wighiding in a box. Della opened the door and froze, stunned. Jim, it, its been so long, why are you here? Dellaasked shakily. Jim replied, Well, I have never forgotten you Della, and I still love you and hope you could forgiveme. Actually, I shouldnt have been as cruel to you as I was, but still, that was a dum move, Della said. Jimstated apologetically, It was a stupid present then, but would you take it now? It kinda fits the situation betterdont you thin k? But I am not implying that you look ugly now, If I gave you this I wouldnt want you to wear it ifyour just around me if you didnt want, because I dont think youve changed one bit. Jim says, taking the boxfrom behind him and handing it to Della. She opens it, and its the old wig, but cleaned and groomed of course. Della stutters, I, I, I dont know what to say. I love it, and its true with me also. I have never loved anyone elsebut you. Jim asks, Della, will you marry me? Yes, oh yes, of course I will marry you. Della says as she putson the old wig. Della and Jim lived happily ever after, until 2 years later when they both died together in a terrible carcrash. .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 , .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 .postImageUrl , .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 , .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94:hover , .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94:visited , .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94:active { border:0!important; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94:active , .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94 .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud1432ecf15847bfa9a68939c7a5d7f94:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Christopher Columbus (601 words) EssayCategory: English

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Expected Value for Chuck-a-Luck

Expected Value for Chuck-a-Luck Chuck-a-Luck is a game of chance. Three dice are rolled, sometimes in a wire frame. Due to this frame, this game is also called birdcage. This game is more often seen in carnivals rather than casinos. However, due to the use of random dice, we can use probability to analyze this game. More specifically we can calculate the expected value of this game. Wagers There are several types of wagers that are possible to bet on. We will only consider the single number wager. On this wager we simply choose a specific number from one to six. Then we roll the dice. Consider the possibilities. All of the dice, two of them, one of them or none could show the number that we have chosen. Suppose that this game will pay the following: $3 if all three dice match the number chosen.$2 if exactly two dice match the number chosen.$1 if exactly one of the dice matches the number chosen. If none of the dice matches the number chosen, then we must pay $1. What is the expected value of this game? In other words, in the long run how much on average would we expect to win or lose if we played this game repeatedly? Probabilities In order to find the expected value of this game we need to determine four probabilities. These probabilities correspond to the four possible outcomes. We note that each die is independent of the others. Due to this independence, we use the multiplication rule. This will help us in determining the number of outcomes. We also assume that the dice are fair. Each of the six sides on each of the three dice is equally likely to be rolled. There are 6 x 6 x 6 216 possible outcomes from rolling these three dice. This number will be the denominator for all of our probabilities. There is one way to match all three dice with the number chosen. There are five ways for a single die to not match our chosen number. This means that there are 5 x 5 x 5 125 ways for none of our dice to match the number that was chosen. If we consider exactly two of the dice matching, then we have one die that does not match. There are 1 x 1 x 5 5 ways for the first two dice to match our number and the third to be different.There are 1 x 5 x 1 5 ways for the first and third dice to match, with the second be different.There are 5 x 1 x 1 5 ways for the first die to be different and for the second and third to match. This means that there is a total of 15 ways for exactly two dice to match. We now have calculated the number of ways to obtain all but one of our outcomes. There are 216 rolls possible. We have accounted for 1 15 125 141 of them. This means that there are 216 -141 75 remaining. We collect all of the above information and see: The probability our number matches all three dice is 1/216.The probability our number matches exactly two dice is 15/216.The probability our number matches exactly one die is 75/216.The probability our number matches none of the dice is 125/216. Expected Value We are now ready to calculate the expected value of this situation. The formula for expected value requires us to multiply the probability of each event by the net gain or loss if the event occurs. We then add all of these products together. The calculation of the expected value is as follows: (3)(1/216) (2)(15/216) (1)(75/216) (-1)(125/216) 3/216 30/216 75/216 -125/216 -17/216 This is approximately -$0.08. The interpretation is that if we were to play this game repeatedly, on average we would lose 8 cents each time that we played.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Review of an Academic Research Paper Literature Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

Of an Academic Research Paper - Literature review Example Educational validity is influenced by the representational validity problems, and methods of implementing the simulation (Stainton, Johnson and Borodzicz, 2010, p.707). The representational problems of validity emanate from algorithmic validity, and the percentage of reality that aims to achieve the necessary learning. Other factors that influence representational validity are prejudices that emanate from designers, and the effectiveness of simulators in helping partakers to understand the simulation representation (Stainton, Johnson and Borodzicz, 2010, P. 709) ). To achieve educational validity, it is important to apply the principles of experiential learning. Experiential learning involves the use of senses to construct learning by undergoing through different problems, and later on reflecting on them, for purposes of understanding the problem and its solution. Robinson (2005) also agrees with the articles proposition that, there is no process for the design, implementation, and validation of total enterprise simulations. For purposes of providing a structure for a validation investigation, the following are formulated theoretical prepositions. Klein (1985) agrees with the articles argument which states that simulation is successful is successful if participants manage to prove that their experiences during the process changed their attitudes regarding the management of businesses. This method gives investigators a chance to acquire meaningful and an all-inclusive characteristics of events that shape the real life. Case studies explain real life phenomena’s that are impossible for experiments and surveys to describe and offer a solution (Stainton, Johnson and Borodzicz, 2010, p. 712). The main aim of construct validity is to create accurate operational measures for purposes of using it during the process of data collection. Therefore, it is important to operationalize total enterprise simulation in order to measure it. External validity